a1 Center for Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, PO Box 550, CP 35080, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
a2 Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Clínica Universitaria – Medical School, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
a3 Department of Preventive Medicine and Quality Management, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona, Spain
a4 Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
a5 Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the dietary patterns of a Mediterranean cohort and relate them to the observed patterns of beverage consumption.
Design Prospective cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed with a semi-quantitative FFQ validated in Spain. A principal components factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and to classify subjects according to their adherence to these patterns. The association between adherence to each dietary pattern and beverage consumption was assessed cross-sectionally. In a longitudinal analysis (2-year follow-up), the relationship between adherence to the baseline dietary patterns and the likelihood of changing alcohol consumption was ascertained.
Setting The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) study is conducted in Spain.
Subjects In total, 15 073 university graduates were included in the analyses.
Results Two major dietary patterns were identified. We labelled them as ‘Western dietary pattern’ (WDP) and ‘Mediterranean dietary pattern’ (MDP). Higher adherence to the WDP was associated with higher consumption of carbonated beverages and whole-fat milk (P for trend <0·001), while higher adherence to the MDP was associated with higher consumption of decaffeinated coffee, orange juice, other natural juices, diet carbonated drinks, low-fat milk and bottled water (P for trend <0·001). Participants with higher adherence to the WDP were less likely to decrease their alcohol consumption during follow-up (OR between extreme quintiles = 0·68; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·84). By contrast, participants with higher adherence to the MDP were less likely to increase their alcohol consumption (OR = 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·95).
Conclusion In this cohort of university graduates, a healthier dietary pattern was associated with a healthier pattern of beverage consumption.
(Received July 20 2007)
(Accepted February 25 2008)