Psychological Medicine

Original Articles

A population-based twin study of functional somatic syndromes

K. Katoa1a2 c1, P. F. Sullivana2a3, B. Evengårda4a5 and N. L. Pedersena2a6

a1 School of Nursing and Rehabilitation, International University of Health and Welfare at Odawara, Kanagawa, Japan

a2 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

a3 Departments of Genetics, Psychiatry, and Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

a4 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden

a5 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

a6 Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA


Background The mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of the functional somatic syndromes are largely unknown. No empirical study has explicitly examined how genetic and environmental factors influence the co-morbidity of these syndromes. We aimed to examine how the co-morbidity of functional somatic syndromes is influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are in common to the syndromes.

Method A total of 31318 twins in the Swedish Twin Registry aged 41–64 years underwent screening interviews via a computer-assisted telephone system from 1998 to 2002. Four functional somatic syndromes (chronic widespread pain, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and recurrent headache) and two psychiatric disorders (major depression and generalized anxiety disorder) were assessed using structured questions based on standard criteria for each illness in a blinded manner.

Results Multivariate twin analyses revealed that a common pathway model with two latent traits that were shared by the six illnesses fit best to the women's data. One of the two latent traits loaded heavily on the psychiatric disorders, whereas the other trait loaded on all four of the functional somatic syndromes, particularly chronic widespread pain, but not on the psychiatric disorders. All illnesses except the psychiatric disorders were also affected by genetic influences that were specific to each.

Conclusions The co-occurrence of functional somatic syndromes in women can be best explained by affective and sensory components in common to all these syndromes, as well as by unique influences specific to each of them. The findings clearly suggest a complex view of the multifactorial pathogenesis of these illnesses.

(Received January 10 2008)

(Revised May 09 2008)

(Accepted May 10 2008)

(Online publication June 26 2008)


c1 Address for correspondence: K. Kato, Ph.D., School of Nursing and Rehabilitation, International University of Health and Welfare at Odawara, 1-2-25 Shiroyama, Odawara, Kanagawa 250-8588, Japan. (Email: