Journal of Fluid Mechanics

The circular hydraulic jump

A. D. D.  Craik a1, R. C.  Latham a1p1, M. J.  Fawkes a2p2 and P. W. F.  Gribbon a2
a1 Department of Applied Mathematics, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland
a2 Department of Physics, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland

Article author query
craik ad   [Google Scholar] 
latham, rc   [Google Scholar] 
fawkes mj   [Google Scholar] 
gribbon pw   [Google Scholar] 


The circular hydraulic jump commonly forms on a horizontal plate struck by a vertical jet of liquid. New observations of this phenomenon are described.

A previously unreported instability of the jump is examined. This is shown to arise when the local Reynolds number Rj just ahead of the jump exceeds a critical value of 147. Prior to this instability, the flow behind the jump contains a closed eddy, the length of which decreases to zero as Rj increases towards its critical value. Physical explanations for this flow structure and instability are proposed.

Accurate measurements of liquid depths were made using a light-absorption technique, in which a laser was shone through water containing a strong dye. Liquid depths ahead of and behind the jump were so determined and depth profiles of the jump in the stable regime were obtained.

As the outer depth was increased, the jump closed in on the jet and eventually disappeared: this extinction of the jump is also investigated.

(Published Online April 20 2006)
(Received October 30 1980)

p1 Present address: c/o Scottish Widows Trust, Edinburgh.
p2 Present address: c/o British Nuclear Fuels, Chapelcross.