The impingement of underexpanded, axisymmetric jets on perpendicular and inclined flat plates
This paper reports on an extensive experimental study of the flows due to under-expanded axisymmetric jets impinging on flat plates. The range of plate locations extends to a point where the jet is just subsonic but the main emphasis is on the behaviour in the first shock cell. Plate inclinations from 90° to 30° were investigated by means of comprehensive surface pressure measurements and shadowgraph pictures. Wherever possible, the main features of the results have been reconstructed using inviscid analyses of the wave interactions.
The flows are shown to be extremely complex due to the local structure of the free jet and, particularly, due to interactions between shock waves in the free jet and those created by the plate. In the near field, these interactions tend to be the controlling factors but at larger distances from the nozzle, mixing effects become increasingly important.
The maximum pressure on the plate when it is inclined can be very much larger than when the plate is perpendicular, owing to the possibility of high pressure recoveries through multiple shock systems. Correlations are presented for some of the main features on perpendicular plates and it is shown that the integrated pressure loads for both normal and inclined plates can be predicted well by a simple momentum balance.(Published Online April 19 2006)
(Received June 18 1979)
p1 Present address: Department of Fluid Mechanics, University of Manchester, England.
p2 Present address: Northrop Corporation, 3901 West Broadway, Hawthorne, California, U.S.A.