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The work transmitted to us as the fourth speech in the manuscripts of Andocides is an invective against Alcibiades on the occasion of the last ostracism to occur in Athens, the ostracism of Hyper bolus. Despite a challenging article by Raubitschek1 pointing to certain authentic-looking details in the speech, most scholars would probably now agree that [And.] 4 is neither by Andocides, nor a genuine speech delivered on the occasion of the last ostracism, but is most likely to be a product of the fourth century. But if this general feeling is correct, why and in what context was the speech written? When in the fourth century did rhetoricians spend their time composing works like [And.] 4?
* Originally composed for the Gaisford Dissertation Prize 1994, this article has benefited tremendously from the general guidance and many specific suggestions of Doreen Innes, Arnd Kerkhecker, Christopher Pelling, Peter Wilson, and, in particular, Donald Russell. A recent commentary on the speech came to my notice just as this article was going to print: P. C. Ghiggia, [Andocide] Contro Alcibiade (Pisa, 1995). It has not been possible to respond to it here.