The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient
It has been observed experimentally that small bubbles in pure liquids can be held stationary or driven downwards by means of a sufficiently strong negative temperature gradient in the vertical direction. This effect is demonstrated to be due to the stresses resulting from the thermal variation of surface tension at the bubble surface. The flow field within and around the bubble is derived, and an expression for the magnitude of the temperature gradient required to hold the bubble stationary is obtained. This expression is verified experimentally.(Published Online March 28 2006)
(Received October 9 1958)
(Revised January 30 1959)
1 Now at Ericsson Telephone Co., Nottingham, England.
2 Also at Brandeis University, Waltham 54, Massachusetts.
3 Now at Naval Supersonic Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.