Journal of Fluid Mechanics

A study of free jet impingement. Part 1. Mean properties of free and impinging jets

Coleman duP.  Donaldson a1 and Richard S.  Snedeker a1
a1 Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey

Article author query
donaldson cd   [Google Scholar] 
snedeker rs   [Google Scholar] 


In this, the first part of a two-part experimental study of the behaviour of impinging jets, the mean properties of the flow field are established. Velocity profiles are given for three types of jet flow issuing from a circular convergent nozzle. Measured distributions of surface pressure are given which result when the jets impinge both normally and obliquely at various distances on several surface shapes. The pressure distributions are used to compute the radial velocity gradient at the impingement stagnation point. It is found that for normal impingement this gradient correlates with the free jet centreline velocity and half-radius at the same axial location. A fall-off in the correlated value is noted as the impingement is made oblique. Measurements of the azimuthal distribution of momentum flux in the resulting wall jet are also given. The general behaviour of all three types of jet is found to be similar at locations downstream of any local effects due to the shock waves present in the under-expanded types. A special study of the close-range impingement of an under-expanded jet containing a normal shock disk reveals a region of separated flow surrounding the stagnation point. This condition results in a negative value of the radial velocity gradient at the centreline.

(Published Online March 29 2006)
(Received November 12 1968)
(Revised May 29 1970)