Journal of Fluid Mechanics

On the two-way interaction in two-dimensional particle-laden flows: the accumulation of particles and flow modification

O. A.  Druzhinin a1
a1 Applied Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603600 Nizhni Novgorod, Russia

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The evolution of two-dimensional regular flows laden with solid heavy particles is studied analytically and numerically. The particulate phase is assumed to be dilute enough to neglect the effects of particle-particle interactions. Flows with large Reynolds and Froude numbers are considered, when effects related to viscous dissipation and gravity are negligible. A Cauchy problem is solved for an initially uniform distribution of particles with Stokes (St) and Reynolds (Rep) numbers of order unity in several types of flows representing steady solutions of the two-dimensional Euler equations. We consider flows in the vicinity of the hyperbolic stagnation point (with a uniform strain and zero vorticity) and the elliptic stagnation point (where vorticity is uniform), a circular vortex (with vorticity depending on the radius) and Stuart vortex flow. Analytical solutions are obtained, for the case of sufficiently small St, describing the accumulation of particles and corresponding modification of the fluid flow. Solutions derived show that the concentration of particles, although remaining uniform, decreases at the elliptic stagnation point and grows at the hyperbolic point. Owing to the coupling between the particulate and fluid dynamics, the flow vorticity is reduced at the elliptic point, while flow strain rate is enhanced at the hyperbolic point. Solutions obtained for the circular vortex show that the accumulation of particles proceeds in the form of a travelling wave. The concentration grows locally, forming the crest of the wave which propagates away from the vortex centre. Owing to the influence of the particulate on the carrier flow, the vorticity is reduced in the vortex centre. At the location of the crest the gradient of the flow grows owing to the drag forces between the fluid and particles and a vorticity peak is generated. Analytical solutions are also obtained for a chain of particle-laden Stuart vortices. Owing to the coupling effects, the concentration is diminished and the vorticity is reduced at the centres of the vortices. A sheet of increased concentration and vorticity is formed extending from the braid region to the periphery of the vortices, and the flow strain in the braid region is enhanced. Results of numerical simulations performed for St = 0.5 show good agreement with analytical solutions.

(Published Online April 26 2006)
(Received September 12 1994)
(Revised March 20 1995)