a1 University of Madrid
In 1821, John Bowring published, probably with only his own additions, a manuscript of Bentham's under the title of Observations on the restrictive and prohibitory commercial system: especially with a reference to the Decree of the Spanish Cortes of July 1820. It seems likely that Bentham's text was originally conceived as an appendix to a work that Bentham never published, ‘Rid Yourselves of Ultramaria’, a commentary on Spanish colonization.
* An earlier draft of this article was presented at the Conference of the International Bentham Society, University College London, 1987. We wish to thank the participants for their comments. We are also grateful for the help and suggestions received from F. Rosen, S. Conway and P. Schofield.