Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society



The Stick Design test: A new measure of visuoconstructional ability


OLUSEGUN  BAIYEWU  a1 , FREDERICK W.  UNVERZAGT  a2 c1 , KATHLEEN A.  LANE  a3 , OYE  GUREJE  a1 , ADESOLA  OGUNNIYI  a4 , BEVERLY  MUSICK  a3 , SUJUAN  GAO  a3 , KATHLEEN S.  HALL  a2 and HUGH C.  HENDRIE  a2
a1 Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
a2 Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
a3 Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
a4 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Article author query
baiyewu o   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
unverzagt fw   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
lane ka   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
gureje o   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ogunniyi a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
musick b   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
gao s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hall ks   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hendrie hc   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 

Abstract

Visuoconstructional ability is an important domain for assessment in dementia. Use of graphomotor measures dominate this area; however, participants with low education produce results that cannot be easily interpreted. Our objective was to develop and validate a nongraphomotor assessment of visuoconstructional ability for use in dementia evaluations in persons with low or no education. In a longitudinal, population-based study of dementia among Yoruba residents of Ibadan, Nigeria aged 65 years and older, participants underwent clinical assessment with a battery of cognitive tests and consensus diagnosis. Performance on two visuoconstructional tests, Constructional Praxis and Stick Design, were compared. Gender, age, and education affected performance on both tests. The Stick Design test was more acceptable than Constructional Praxis as measured by the number of participants with total test failure (3.9% vs. 15.1%). The Stick Design test was significantly more sensitive to cognitive impairment and dementia than the Constructional Praxis test. We conclude that Stick Design is a reasonable test of visuoconstructional ability in older cohorts with very limited educational exposure and literacy. (JINS, 2005, 11, 598–605.)

(Received April 11 2005)
(Revised May 10 2005)
(Accepted May 10 2005)


Key Words: Cognition; Neuropsychological test; Aging; Dementia; Diagnosis; Geriatric assessment.

Correspondence:
c1 Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Frederick W. Unverzagt, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1111 W. 10th Street, Suite PB 218A, Indianapolis, IN 46202. E-mail: funverza@iupui.edu.