Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems

Topological entropy for divergence points

a1 Department of Mathematics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, People's Republic of China (e-mail:,
a2 Mathematical Institute, University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany (e-mail:

Article author query
ercai c   [Google Scholar] 
kupper t   [Google Scholar] 
lin s   [Google Scholar] 


Let X be a compact metric space, f a continuous transformation on X, and Y a vector space with linear compatible metric. Denote by M(X) the collection of all the probability measures on X. For a positive integer n, define the nth empirical measure $L_{n}:X\mapsto M(X)$ as

\[ L_{n}x=\frac{1}{n}\sum _{k=0}^{n-1}\delta_{f^{k}x}, \]

where $\delta_{x}$ denotes the Dirac measure at x. Suppose $\Xi:M(X)\mapsto Y$ is continuous and affine with respect to the weak topology on M(X). We think of the composite

\[ \Xi\circ L_{n}:X \xrightarrow{L_n} M(X)\xrightarrow{\Xi} Y \]

as a continuous and affine deformation of the empirical measure Ln. The set of divergence points of such a deformation is defined as

\[ D(f,\Xi)=\{x\in X\mid \mbox{the limit of }\Xi L_n x \mbox{ does not exist}\}. \]

In this paper we show that for a continuous transformation satisfying the specification property, if $\Xi(M(X))$ is a singleton, then set of divergence points is empty, i.e. <formula form="inline" disc="math" id="ffm008"><formtex notation="AMSTeX">$D(f,\Xi)=\emptyset$, and if $\Xi(M(X))$ is not a singleton, then the set of divergence points has full topological entropy, i.e.

\[ h_{\rm top}(D(f,\Xi))=h_{\rm top}(f). \]

(Received May 1 2004)
(Revised September 20 2004)