Epidemiology and Infection

The occurrence of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in European pigs from 1990 to 2001

a1 Department of Social Sciences, Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
a2 Department of Farm Animal Health, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
a3 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna (IZSLER), Brescia, Italy
a4 Zoonoses and Emerging Infections Group, Clinical Virology, Clinical Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Infectious Diseases and Clinical Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
a5 UMR 1161, unité VBE, AFSSA/Lerpaz, Maisons-Alfort, France
a6 Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
a7 Laboratory of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
a8 Central Veterinary Laboratory, Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus
a9 Pirbright Laboratory, Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, UK
a10 Section of Epizootic Diseases, Department of Virology, CODA-CERVA-VAR, Ukkel, Belgium

Article author query
maurice h   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
nielen m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
brocchi e   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
nowotny n   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
bakkali kassimi lb   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
billinis c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
loukaides p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
o'hara rs   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
koenen f   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


The occurrence of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) among domestic pigs and wild boar in several European countries is described and discussed. From 1990 to 2001 clinical outbreaks were analysed and serum samples, partly from existing screening programmes, were tested for antibodies against EMCV. Most clinical EMCV outbreaks were reported in Belgium (320), followed by Italy (110), Greece (15) and Cyprus (6). The outbreaks appeared to be clustered in ‘endemic areas’ with an increase in outbreaks during the autumn and winter months. The within-herd seroprevalence measured in clinically affected pig farms varied considerably among farms (2–87%), with age (0–84%) and by country. Data from farms with no clinical disease showed that subclinical infection with EMCV was found both within (seroprevalence 6–62%) and outside (up to 17%) the endemic areas of the clinically affected countries as well as in the non-clinically affected countries Austria and France (3–5·4%). Among wild boar, the seroprevalence varied between 0·6 and 10·8%, and a study in Belgium found a prevalence of virus infection of 3·3%.

(Accepted March 1 2004)

c1 Department of Social Sciences, Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands. (Email: Huibert.maurice@wur.nl)