Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Open Peer Commentary
Controversies in Neuroscience V: Persistent pain

Cholecystokinin (CCK): Negative feedback control for opioid analgesia

Ji-Sheng Han a1
a1 Neuroscience Research Center, Beijing Medical University, Beijing 100083, China [email protected]


Negative feedback is an important mechanism whereby the organism maintains its balance in a complicated system. It may be regarded as a modern version of the ancient Eastern wisdom of Yin and Yang balance. Control of pain and analgesia, is no exception: CCK seems to serve as a built-in mechanism for the modulation of opioid analgesia system [dickenson].