The encouragement of aural methods should be basic to any fostering of musical experiences and understanding. This basis has been lost in European formal music education largely because of the all-pervading influence of musical literacy. Efforts to retain some importance for the aural experience through examinations have mostly been unsuccessful. If music is primarily an aural experience, then it is this that should govern the work of teachers at all times. A case is presented for both class and instrumental teachers to recognise the importance of psychomotor skills and the value of imitative methods for all pupils, enabling improvisation on all instruments. The argument draws on some examples of teaching and learning from other cultures.