The Lichenologist

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Phylogeny and systematics of the lichen family Gomphillaceae (Ostropales) inferred from cladistic analysis of phenotype data


Robert  LÜCKING a1 , Emmanuël  SÉRUSIAUX a2 and Antonín  VEZDA a3
a1 Botany, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, U.S.A.
a2 Plant Taxonomy and Conservation Biology Unit, Environmental Sciences and Management Dept., University of Liège, Sart Tilman B22, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
a3 Lichenological Institute, Tábor 28a, CZ-60200 Brno, Czech Republic

Article author query
lucking r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
serusiaux e   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
vezda a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 

Abstract

The phylogeny of the lichen family Gomphillaceae sensu Vezda & Poelt was reconstructed by parsimony analysis of a phenotype data matrix including ecological, thallus, apothecial, and hyphophore characters. Two hundred and twenty-eight taxa and 209 characters, grouped into ecology (14), thallus (45), apothecia (83), and hyphophores (67), were included in the analysis. Gyalidea hyalinescens (Asterothyriaceae) was used as outgroup. Because of the high level of homoplasy (consistency index of all-taxa tree without character weighting CI=0·12), and the resulting uncertainty (generally low support) with respect to group topologies, we accepted both monophyletic clades and paraphyletic grades and only rejected previously proposed classifications if the taxon in question appeared polyphyletic, or if segregate taxa were characterized by functionally independent apomorphies and/or by evidence of radiation. Thus, the following 19 genera (synonyms in brackets) are accepted as a result of this study: Actinoplaca (segregate of Echinoplaca; isidioid hyphophores), Aderkomyces (Psathyromyces; segregate of Tricharia; white setae, hyphal excipulum), Aplanocalenia (segregate of Calenia; immersed applanate apothecia), Arthotheliopsis (Phallomyces; segregate of Echinoplaca; smooth thallus, differentiated diahyphae), Aulaxina (Lochomyces; carbonized apothecia, bristle-shaped hyphophores with palmate diahyphae on prothallus), Calenia (Bullatina; zeorine apothecia, acute to bristle-shaped hyphophores with moniliform diahyphae), Caleniopsis (thick white thallus with dark prothallus, zeorine apothecia, bristle-shaped hyphophores with palmate diahyphae on prothallus), Diploschistella (segregate of Gyalideopsis; immersed apothecia), Echinoplaca (Spinomyces, Sporocybomyces; crystalline thallus, acute to bristle-shaped hyphophores with moniliform or derived diahyphae), Ferraroa (segregate of Gyalideopsis; campylidioid hyphophores), Gomphillus (vertically elongate apothecia, filiform ascospores), Gyalectidium (Tauromyces; zeorine apothecia, squamiform hyphophores), Gyalideopsis (Epilithia, Microlychnus, Microspatha; chiefly biatorine apothecia, setiform or flabellate hyphophores), Hippocrepidea (applanate apothecia, squamiform hyphophores with strongly derived diahyphae), Jamesiella (segregate of Gyalideopsis; isidioid hyphophores), Lithogyalideopsis (segregate of Gyalideopsis; lecideine apothecia, bristleshaped hyphophores with palmate diahyphae), Paratricharia (black setae, partly carbonized apothecia with columella), Rubrotricha (segregate of Tricharia; red-brown setae, hyphal excipulum), and Tricharia (Microxyphiomyces, Setomyces; black setae, proso- or paraplectenchymatous excipulum). The following taxa and combinations are introduced: Actinoplaca gemmifera comb. nov. [Echinoplaca gemmifera], Aderkomyces albostrigosus comb. nov. (Tricharia albostrigosa), A. armatus comb. nov. (T. armata), A. carneoalbus comb. nov. (T. carneoalba), A. cretaceus comb. nov. (T. cretacea), A. cubanus comb. nov. (T. cubana), A. deslooveri comb. nov. (T. deslooveri), A. dilatatus comb. nov. (T. dilatata), A. fumosus comb. nov. (T. fumosa), A. heterellus comb. nov. (Arthonia heterella; Lopadium membranula; Echinoplaca affinis), A. guatemalensis comb. nov. (T. guatemalensis), A. lobulimarginatus sp. nov., A. microcarpus comb. nov. (T. microcarpa), A. microtrichus comb. nov. (T. microtricha), A. papilliferus comb. nov. (T. papillifera), A. planicarpus comb. nov. (T. planicarpa), A. planus comb. nov. (T. plana), A. purulhensis comb. nov. (T. purulhensis), A. ramiferus comb. nov. (T. ramifera), A. subalbostrigosus comb. nov. (T. subalbostrigosa), A. subplanus comb. nov. (T. subplana), A. testaceus comb. nov. (T. testacea), A. verruciferus comb. nov. (T. verrucifera), A. verrucosus comb. nov. (T. verrucosa), Aplanocalenia gen. nov., A. inconspicua comb. nov. (Heterothecium inconspicuum; Calenia inconspicua), Arthotheliopsis serusiauxii comb. nov. (Echinoplaca serusiauxii), A. tricharioides comb. nov. (E. tricharioides), Caleniopsis aggregata comb. nov. (Calenia aggregata), C. conspersa comb. nov. (Thelotrema conspersa; Calenia conspersa), Diploschistella lithophila comb. nov. (Gyalideopsis lithophila), D. solorinellaeformis comb. nov. (G. solorinellaeformis), D. trapperi comb. nov. (G. trapperi), Echinoplaca macgregorii comb. nov. (Arthonia macgregorii), Ferraroa gen. nov., Ferraroa hyalina comb. nov. (Gyalideopsis hyalina), Gyalideopsis brevipilosa comb. nov. (Tricharia brevipilosa), G. buckei nom. nov. (Tricharia vezdae), G. cristata comb. nov. (Epilithia cristata), G. glauca comb. nov. (Microspatha glauca), G. puertoricensis sp. nov., Jamesiella gen. nov., J. anastomosans comb. nov. (Gyalideopsis anastomosans), J. perlucida comb. nov. (G. perlucida), J. scotica comb. nov. (G. scotica), Lithogyalideopsis gen. nov., L. aterrima comb. nov. (Gyalideopsis aterrima), L. poeltii comb. nov. (G. poeltii), L. vivantii comb. nov. (G. vivantii), L. zeylandica comb. nov. (G. zeylandica), Rubrotricha gen. nov., R. helminthospora comb. nov. (Tricharia helminthospora), R. subhelminthospora sp. nov., Tricharia atrocarpa sp. nov., and Tricharia variratae sp. nov. A key is presented to all genera of Gomphillaceae, and a synopsis of the family classification, with all presently known species, is provided.

(Accepted January 6 2005)