Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy

Treatment Applications

Cognitive Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Current Status and Future Challenges

Freda McManusa1 c1, Nick Greya2 and Roz Shafrana3

a1 Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre and University of Oxford, UK

a2 Maudsley Hospital, London, UK

a3 University of Reading, UK


This paper reviews recent theoretical, conceptual and practice developments in cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The empirical status of CBT for anxiety disorders is reviewed and recent advances in the field are outlined. Challenges for the future development of CBT for the anxiety disorders are examined in relation to the efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the approach. It is concluded that the major challenge currently facing CBT for anxiety disorders in the UK is how to meet the increased demand for provision whilst maintaining high levels of efficacy and effectiveness. It is suggested that the creation of an evidence base for the dissemination of CBT needs to become a priority for empirical investigation in order effectively to expand the provision of CBT for anxiety disorders.


c1 Reprint requests to Freda McManus, Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre, The Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. E-mail: