Environmental Conservation


Livelihood gains and ecological costs of non-timber forest product dependence: assessing the roles of dependence, ecological knowledge and market structure in three contrasting human and ecological settings in south India

a1 Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, #659, 5th A Main, Hebbal, Bangalore 560024, India
a2 Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560065, India
a3 Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 065, India
a4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560065, India
a5 Imperial College London, Wye Campus, Wye, Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom
a6 Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berks, United Kingdom
a7 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560065, India

Article author query
shaanker ru   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ganeshaiah kn   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
krishnan s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ramya r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
meera c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
aravind na   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
kumar a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
rao d   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
vanaraj g   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ramachandra j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
gauthier r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ghazoul j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
poole n   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
reddy bv   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) constitute the single largest determinant of livelihoods for scores of forest fringe communities and poor people in the tropics. In India over 50 million people are believed to be directly dependent upon NTFPs for their subsistence. However, such human dependence on NTFPs for livelihood gains (win) has most frequently been at a certain ecological cost (lose). If livelihoods are to be maintained, the existing ‘win-lose’ settings have to be steered to a ‘win-win’ mode, otherwise, there could be severe erosion of the biological resources and loss of livelihoods (‘lose-lose’). Examining the dependence of forest fringe communities on NTFPs at three sites in south India with contrasting human and ecological settings, three key factors (extent of dependence on NTFPs, indigenous ecological knowledge and market organization) are likely to constrain reaching the win-win situation. How these factors shape the ecological cost of harvesting NTFPs at the three sites is examined. Within the parameter space of these factors, it is possible to predict outcomes and associations that will conform to win-win or win-lose situations. Empirical data derived from the three study sites demonstrate the causality of the observed associations. The key for long-term livelihood gains lies in reducing the ecological cost. Certain interventions and recommendations that could optimize the balance between livelihood gains and ecological cost are proposed.

(Received July 23 2003)
(Accepted September 9 2004)

Key Words: ecological costs; ecological knowledge; livelihood gains; non-timber forest product; NTFP; Western Ghats; win-win situation.

c1 Correspondence: Dr R. Uma Shaanker Tel: +91 80 23636350 Fax: +91 80 23530070 e-mail: rus@vsnl.com