International Psychogeriatrics


An Evaluation of Needs in Elderly Continuing-Care Settings

Mark D. Martin a1, Geraldine A. Hancock a2, Barbora Richardson a3, Peter Simmons a4, Cornelius Katona a2, Eleanor Mullan a5 and Martin Orrell a2
a1 Brian Oliver Centre, Birmingham, UK
a2 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, University College London, London, UK
a3 Department of Psychiatry, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Harlow, UK
a4 Department of Psychiatry, Chase Farm Hospital, Enfield, UK
a5 Kingston & District Community NHS Trust, St. John's House and Amyand House, Twickenham, UK

Article author query
martin m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hancock g   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
richardson b   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
simmons p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
katona c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
mullan e   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
orrell m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


This article describes the met and ummet needs of elderly residents of nursing care (NC) and residential care (RC) settings. Thirty-four residents of an RC home and 40 residents of two NC settings were assessed. Each resident and a respective staff member were interviewed using the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) to indicate the resident's current met and unmet needs. The Clifton Assessment Procedure for the Elderly–Behaviour Rating Scale (CAPE-BRS) was completed by the staff member to indicate the participant's current level of dependency. In addition, the Mini-Mental State Examination was administered to participants and DSM-IV diagnosis was recorded. A high number of needs were found in both RC and NC settings, the level of dependency being proportional to level of need. There was a core set of needs in both samples related to difficulties with accommodation, food preparation, and self-care. Both NC and RC homes were meeting these needs; however, RC residents had a significantly greater level of unmet need for suitable daytime activities. The greatest predictor of type of setting was gender and there were significantly more females in RC. Controlling for gender, participants in NC had greater levels of dependency, particularly problems with apathy and social skills, as measured on the CAPE-BRS. It is possible that the greater level of social needs in NC residents had led to their placement in the more specialized NC settings. On the other hand, NC settings may be left caring for a group of residents that, because of their specific needs, have been difficult to place into RC. These findings have clinical implications for the future development of continuing care for the elderly. This study also highlighted that there is a substantial need for specialist services to address the unmet needs in these two types of continuing-care settings, such as interventions for social disturbances in NC and suitable daytime activities in RC. The CANE is a useful instrument to evaluate such needs in long-term-care settings.

Key Words: Needs; elderly; continuing care; CANE; assessment.