International Psychogeriatrics

Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD): A Clinical and Research Update


Sanford I. Finkel , Alistair Burns  and Gene Cohen 

Article author query
finkel s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
burns a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
cohen g   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) can be defined as “a term used to describe a heterogeneous range of psychological reactions, psychiatric symptoms, and behaviors occurring in people with dementia of any etiology.” The basis of the diagnosis of individual components that make up BPSD revolves around a clinical interview, direct observation of the person with dementia, or a proxy report from a carer or other observer. The three approaches often need to be combined, and some assessment scales rely more on one approach than on another. The key to an accurate diagnosis of BPSD and its effective management lies in a careful assessment of the person with dementia, including carer input.