International Psychogeriatrics


Coping With Dementia: Evaluation of Four Nonpharmacologic Interventions

Mary P. Quayhagen a1, Margaret Quayhagen a1, Robert R. Corbeil a1, Ronald C. Hendrix a2, J. Edward Jackson a3, Lisa Snyder a4 and Doris Bower a4
a1 University of San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
a2 Alzheimer's Association of San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
a3 School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
a4 Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.

Article author query
quayhagen m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
quayhagen m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
corbeil r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hendrix r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
jackson j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
snyder l   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
bower d   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


To evaluate nonpharmacologic interventions, caregivers (65 women, 38 men) and their dementia-diagnosed spouses (patients) were randomized to one of four treatment programs (cognitive stimulation, dyadic counseling, dual supportive seminar, and early-stage day care) or to a wait-list control group. Assessments occurred initially and at postintervention (3 months). Patients were evaluated on memory, verbal fluency, and problem-solving ability, and caregivers were assessed on marital interaction, emotional status, and physical health, along with stress, coping, and social support. Caregivers also completed a program evaluation. Repeated measures procedures showed that patients in the cognitive stimulation group demonstrated more improvement over time in cognitive outcomes, and caregivers decreased in depressive symptoms. Early-stage day-care and dual supportive seminar group caregivers reported a decrease in hostility and a decrease in use of negative coping strategies, respectively. Although qualitatively derived benefits differed across groups, similarities in program content reduced the potential for quantitative differentiation among the groups.

(Received May 25 1999)
(Accepted July 29 1999)