International Psychogeriatrics


Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease
Functional and Global Evaluations

Clinical Dementia Rating: A Reliable and Valid Diagnostic and Staging Measure for Dementia of the Alzheimer Type


John C. Morris a1
a1 Departments of Neurology and Pathology (Neuropathology) and the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Article author query
morris j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 

Abstract

Global staging measures for dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) assess the influence of cognitive loss on the ability to conduct everyday activities and represent the “ultimate test” of efficacy for antidementia drug trials. They provide information about clinically meaningful function and behavior and are less affected by the “floor” and “ceiling” effects commonly associated with psychometric test. The Washington University Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) is a global scale developed to clinically denote the presence of DAT and stage its severity. The clinical protocol incorporates semistructured interviews with the patient and informant to obtain information necessary to rate the subject's cognitive performance in six domains: memory, orientation, judgment and problem solving, community affairs, home and hobbies, and personal care. The CDR has been standardized for multicenter use, including the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) and the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study, and interrater reliability has been established. Criterion validity for both the global CDR and scores on individual domains has been demonstrated, and the CDR also has been validated neuropathologically, particularly for the presence or absence of dementia. Standardized training protocols are available. Although not well suited as a brief screening tool for population surveys of dementia because the protocol depends on sufficient time to conduct interviews, the CDR has become widely accepted in the clinical setting as a reliable and valid global assessment measure for DAT.