|Behavioral and Psychological Sign and Symptoms of Dementia: Implications for Research and Treatment|
Clinical Perspectives: What Should We Be Studying?
Disinhibition, Apathy, Indifference, Fatigability, Complaining, and Negativism
|Joy Webster a1 and George T. Grossberg a1|
a1 Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, St. Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
A wide range of neuropsychiatric disturbances, which include noncognitive behavioral problems and mood changes, can accompany the unrelenting cognitive deterioration seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Aggression, agitation, paranoia, hallucinations, sleep disturbances, or depression occur in more than 50% of patients with Alzheimer's disease, both those living in the community and those cared for in nursing homes. Disinhibition, apathy, indifference, fatigability, complaining, and negativism, as well as incontinence, changes in appetite, and sexual disturbances, also occur in patients with dementia.