International Psychogeriatrics

Research and Reviews

Proposed Factor Structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale

Javaid I. Sheikh a1a2, Jerome A. Yesavage a1a2, John O. Brooks III a1a2, Leah Friedman a1a2, Peter Gratzinger a1a2, Robert D. Hill a3, Anastasia Zadeik a4 and Thomas Crook a4
a1 Veterans Administration Medical Center, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.
a2 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, U.S.A.
a3 Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.
a4 Memory Assessment Clinics, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.

Article author query
sheikh j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
yesavage j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
brooks j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
friedman l   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
gratzinger p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hill r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
zadeik a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
crook t   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is commonly used to measure depression in the elderly. However, there have been no reports of the underlying structure of the GDS. To this end, the GDS was administered to 326 community-dwelling elderly subjects, and the data were subjected to a factor analysis. A five-factor solution was selected and, after a varimax rotation, the factors that emerged could be described as: (1) sad mood, (2) lack of energy, (3) positive mood, (4) agitation, and (5) social withdrawal. This solution accounted for 42.9% of the variance. Knowledge of the factor structure should aid both clinicians and researchers in the interpretation of responses on the GDS.