In this article we review the relationship between Tourette's syndrome (TS) and speech, language, and communication disorders. We consider TS to be a neurodevelopmental disorder with an increased rate of co-occurring (comorbid) disorders. We have organized the available research into topical areas for convenience of review. These areas are tic insertion into speech, learning disabilities, speech abnormalities, expressive and receptive language impairments, coprophenomena, writing and tics, signing and tic premonitory phenomena, and TS. We conclude with a discussion of the interplay between neurological function and mental factors on expression and outcome of this relationship. We offer discussion of a research agenda to advance the science in this area.
Larry Burd is a professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Department of Pediatrics at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine. He is the co-principal investigator for the Four State Fetal Alcohol Consortium. Dr. Burd is also director of the North Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center and the FAS Clinic.
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Trent Christensen is an undergraduate student at the University of North Dakota. He works alongside Dr. Burd in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine. He will be starting medical school in the fall of 2008.
Jacob Kerbeshian is a professor in the Department of Neuroscience at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine. He also works as a child and adolescent psychiatrist at Altru Hospital. He is board certified in psychiatry and neurology.