Passive dynamic walking model with upper body

M. Wisse a1c1, A. L. Schwab a1 and F. C. T. van der Helm a1
a1 Biped Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, NL-2628 CD Delft (The Netherlands)

Article author query
wisse m   [Google Scholar] 
schwab al   [Google Scholar] 
van der helm fc   [Google Scholar] 


This paper presents the simplest walking model with an upper body. The model is a passive dynamic walker, i.e. it walks down a slope without motor input or control. The upper body is confined to the midway angle of the two legs. With this kinematic constraint, the model has only two degrees of freedom. The model achieves surprisingly successful walking results: it can handle disturbances of 8% of the initial conditions and it has a specific resistance of only 0.0725(−).

(Received April 14 2004)

Key Words: Passive dynamic walking; Biped; Passive upper body.

c1 Corresponding author: M. Wisse. E-mail: