Indirect protection obtained by Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: analysis in a structured population model
We used a structured population model to study factors determining the magnitude of indirect protection in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination. On a simulation platform mimicking the population of Finland, a Hib transmission and immunity model, including cross-reactive bacterial encounters, was formulated. Utilizing different vaccination coverages and vaccine types we could study how fast the incidence of Hib disease declined due to direct and indirect vaccination effects. With the Finnish vaccination schedule we could reproduce the observed disappearance of Hib cases. Our results show that an indirect effect was already significant with a relatively low vaccine coverage, even with a vaccine only partly reducing carriage acquisition. This suggests that the vaccination schedule and vaccine to be used should be chosen to result, in addition to immunological memory, in high antibody concentrations, sufficient to reduce carriage, the latter being the main factor behind successful elimination of transmission and disease.(Accepted March 15 2004)
c1 Dr T. Leino, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN 00300 Helsinki, Finland.