Development and Psychopathology

Articles

Brain development, infant communication, and empathy disorders: Intrinsic factors in child mental health

Colwyn Trevarthena1 c1 and Kenneth J. Aitkena1a2

a1 Edinburgh Centre for Research in Child Development, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh

a2 Department of Clinical Psychology, Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, Scotland

Abstract

Disorders of emotion, communication, and learning in early childhood are considered in light of evidence on human brain growth from embryo stages. We cite microbehavioral evidence indicating that infants are born able to express the internal activity of their brains, including dynamic “motive states” that drive learning. Infant expressions stimulate the development of imitative and reciprocal relations with corresponding dynamic brain states of caregivers. The infant's mind must have an “innate self-with-other representation” of the inter-mind correspondence and reciprocity of feelings that can be generated with an adult.

Primordial motive systems appear in subcortical and limbic systems of the embryo before the cerebral cortex. These are presumed to continue to guide the growth of a child's brain after birth. We propose that an “intrinsic motive formation” is assembled prenatally and is ready at birth to share emotion with caregivers for regulation of the child's cortical development, on which cultural cognition and learning depend.

The intrinsic potentiality for “intersubjectivity” can be disorganized if the epigenetic program for the infant's brain fails. Indeed, many psychological disorders of childhood can be traced to faults in early stages of brain development when core motive systems form.

Correspondence

c1 Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Prof. Colwyn Trevarthen, Dept. of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EII8 9JZ, Scotland, UK.