Macrophages in the development of protective immunity against experimental Brugia malayi infection
The present report compares the macrophage function in rodent hosts susceptible and resistant to the human lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi. Macrophages from both mastomys (resistant) and gerbil (susceptible) infected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the infective larvae (L3) of B. malayi were isolated from peritoneal lavage at different time-intervals and formation rate of NO, H2O2, O2−, TNF-α, glutathione peroxidase and reductase was assayed. NO release was found to be significantly increased in resistant mastomys as compared to gerbils and the release was markedly suppressed by i.p. administration of the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). The AG-treated mastomys also demonstrated significantly greater establishment of larvae which correlated well with suppressed formation of NO. Nitric oxide synergizes with superoxide to form peroxynitrite radical (potent oxidant), which is known to be more toxic per se than NO. Results indicate the possible involvement of peroxynitrite in the rapid killing of larvae in the peritoneal cavity of mastomys. In contrast, the production of H2O2 was found to be enhanced in both species indicating that B. malayi L3 could withstand the toxic effects of H2O2. The higher level of glutathione peroxidase and reductase, as observed in mastomys compared with the gerbil after larval introduction, possibly protects the cell against the injurious effect of H2O2. The TNF-α level remained virtually unchanged in both the hosts, suggesting an insignificant role for this cytokine in parasite establishment.(Received September 3 2003)
(Revised February 7 2004)
(Accepted February 9 2004)
Key Words: Brugia malayi; macrophages; TNF-α; nitric oxide; glutathione; mastomys; gerbil; protective immunity.
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