Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Short Communication

Working memory as a state of activated long-term memory: A plausible theory, but other data provide more compelling evidence

Frank Rösler a1 and Martin Heil a2
a1 Experimental and Biological Psychology, Philipps-University, 35032 Marburg, Germany [email protected]
a2 Institute of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany [email protected]


The identity of working-memory and long-term memory representations follows from many lines of evidence. However, the data provided by Ruchkin et al. are hardly compelling, as they make unproved assumptions about hypothetical generators. We cite studies from our lab in which congruent slow-wave topographies were found for short-term and long-term memory tasks, strongly suggesting that both activate identical cell assemblies.