Journal of Fluid Mechanics


Regularized 13-moment equations: shock structure calculations and comparison to Burnett models

a1 ETH Zurich, Seminar for Applied Mathematics, ETH Zentrum, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland e-mail:
a2 University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria BC, V8W3P6, Canada e-mail:

Article author query
torrilhon m   [Google Scholar] 
struchtrup h   [Google Scholar] 


Recently a new system of field equations for the accurate description of flows in rarefied gases, called regularized 13-moment equations, was obtained by means of a hybrid gas kinetic approach. The first part of this paper discusses the relationship of the new system to classical high-order theories like the Burnett and super-Burnett equations as well as to modified models like the augmented and regularized Burnett equations. In the second part, shock structure calculations with the new theory are presented and compared to direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solutions and to solutions of the Burnett models. Owing to additional higher-order dissipation in the system, the profiles are smooth for any Mach number, in contrast to the results of Grad's 13-moment case. The results show reliable quantitative agreement with DSMC simulations for Mach numbers up to $M_{0}\approx 3.0$. The agreement is better for Maxwell molecules than for hard spheres. The results of the augmented Burnett equations are comparable, but these equations are shown to be spatially unstable. Additionally, a validiation procedure for the new equations is presented by investigating the positivity of Grad's distribution function.

(Received October 8 2002)
(Revised April 23 2004)