Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

The d2 Test of Attention: Construct validity and extensions in scoring techniques

MARSHA E.  BATES  a1 c1 and EDWARD P.  LEMAY  Jr. a2
a1 Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey
a2 Psychology Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey

Article author query
bates me   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
lemay ep   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


The internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the d2 Test, a cancellation test of attention and concentration, was examined in a sample of 364 U.S. adults. Test-taking strategy, new process scores for assessing performance constancy, and relations to gender and education were explored. Results suggested that the d2 Test is an internally consistent and valid measure of visual scanning accuracy and speed. Overall performance scores were related to a proxy measure of test-taking strategy in the expected direction, and new acceleration and deterioration measures exhibited convergent validity. Suggested directions for future research include discrimination of attentional processes that support immediate and sustained visual scanning accuracy and speed, further examination of the impact of test-taking strategies on overall performance measures, and additional construct validity examinations for the new process measures. (JINS, 2004, 10, 392–400.)

(Received June 24 2002)
(Revised August 18 2003)
(Accepted September 22 2003)

Key Words: d2 test; Attention; Learning; Neuropsychological assessment.

c1 Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Marsha E. Bates, Ph.D., Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8001. E-mail: