a1 Professor of the history of science in the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
a2 Professor of the history of medicine and the history of science in the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.
On a December evening in 1869, with memories of civil war still fresh in their minds, a large audience gathered in the great hall of Cooper Union in New York City to hear about another conflict, still taking its toll—“with battles fiercer, with sieges more persistent, with strategy more vigorous than in any of the comparatively petty warfares of Alexander, or Caesar, or Napoleon.” Although waged with pens rather than swords, and for minds rather than empires, this war, too had destroyed lives and reputations. The combatants? Science and Religion.