Oblique particle–wall collisions in a liquid
This paper presents experimental measurements of the approach and rebound of a particle colliding obliquely with a wall in a viscous fluid. Steel and glass particles 12.7 mm in diameter were used. The experiments were performed using a thick Zerodur wall (a glass-like material) with various mixtures of glycerol and water. Normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were defined from the ratios of the respective velocity components at the point of contact just prior to and after impact. These coefficients account for losses due to lubrication effects and inelasticity. A third parameter, a coefficient of sliding friction, provides a measure of the tangential force acting on the particle as it slides during a collision.
Oblique collisions in a fluid are qualitatively similar to oblique collisions in a dry system, with a lowered friction coefficient dependent on surface roughness. For smooth surfaces the friction coefficient is drastically reduced due to lubrication effects. A theoretical model that takes into account the dependence of viscosity on pressure is proposed to explain the observed tangential force acting on a smooth sphere during an oblique collision. The model relies on an inferred uniform temperature increase within the lubrication layer, a consequence of viscous heating during impact. The tangential force felt by the particle is expressed as a friction coefficient dependent on the viscosity within the lubrication layer. The viscosity increases owing to pressure effects and decreases owing to thermal effects. For rough surfaces the friction coefficient is comparable to that measured in dry systems, since the surface asperities may interact with each other through the lubrication layer.(Received September 16 2003)
(Revised February 10 2004)