Glacial boulders ‘floating’ on the ice cover of Lake Untersee, East Antarctica
Large glacial boulders, up to several metres in diameter, resting on the lake ice are a remarkable feature of Lake Untersee (71°21'S, 13°28'E), an ice-dammed, perennially frozen freshwater lake in the Ottovon-Gruber-Gebirge (Gruber Mountains) of central Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica. A geodetic survey of such ice-rafted boulders was made over two summer seasons to determine the direction and velocity of their movement. They are transported between 3.9 and 11.1 m annually and the residence time of the boulders is estimated at approximately 500 years. Lake Untersee must have been permanently covered with lake ice for at least that long.(Received July 8 1998)
(Accepted January 22 1999)
Key Words: Antarctica; glacial boulders; glacial geomorphology; lake ice.