A REVISED GENERIC SYNOPSIS OF HYACINTHACEAE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, BASED ON MOLECULAR EVIDENCE, INCLUDING NEW COMBINATIONS AND THE NEW TRIBE PSEUDOPROSPEREAE
A revised generic synopsis of sub-Saharan Hyacinthaceae is presented, based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family. Generic rank is accorded only to reciprocally monophyletic clades that can be distinguished by recognizable morphological discontinuities, thereby permitting an appropriate generic assignment of species not included in the analysis. Three subfamilies are recognized within the region. Subfamily Ornithogaloideae, characterized by flattened or angular seeds with tightly adhering testa, is considered to include the single genus Ornithogalum, which is expanded to include the genera Albuca, Dipcadi, Galtonia, Neopatersonia and Pseudogaltonia. Recognizing any of these segregates at generic level renders the genus Ornithogalum polyphyletic, while subdivision of Ornithogalum into smaller, morphologically distinguishable segregates in order to preserve the monophyly of each is not possible. Subfamily Urgineoideae, characterized by flattened or winged seeds with brittle, loosely adhering testa, comprises the two mainland African genera Bowiea and Drimia. The latter is well circumscribed by its deciduous, short-lived perianth and includes the previously recognized genera Litanthus, Rhadamanthus, Schizobasis and Tenicroa. The monotypic Madagascan Igidia is provisionally included in the subfamily as a third genus on the basis of its seeds, pending molecular confirmation of its relationships. Subfamily Hyacinthoideae resolves into three clades, distinguished as tribes Hyacintheae (strictly northern hemisphere and not treated further), Massonieae and Pseudoprospereae tribus nov. Full descriptions and a key to their identification are provided for all genera. New combinations reflecting the generic circumscriptions adopted here are made for most African and all Indian and Madagascan species.
Key Words: Africa; Albuca; Dipcadi; Galtonia; Hyacinthaceae; molecular systematics; Ornithogalum; Pseudoprospereae; taxonomy.