Multi-scale spatial analysis of human alveolar echinococcosis risk in China

F. M. DANSON a1c1, A. J. GRAHAM a1, D. R. J. PLEYDELL a1, M. CAMPOS-PONCE a1, P. GIRAUDOUX a2 and P. S. CRAIG a1
a1 Telford Institute of Environmental Systems and Biosciences Research Institute, School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, UK
a2 ISTE (EA 3184 MRT – UC INRA; EA 2276) – OMS, Université de Franche-Comté, 25030, Besançon Cedex, France

Article author query
danson f   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
graham a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
pleydell d   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
campos-ponce m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
giraudoux p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
craig p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


Risk factors for the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis to humans operate at a range of spatial scales. Over a large area, such as China, regional scale risk is correlated with variation in climatic conditions because of its effect on the spatial distribution of landscapes that can support E. multilocularis transmission in wildlife hosts and the probability of egg survival. At a local scale of a few kilometres, or tens of kilometres, transmission risk is related to the spatial proximity of human populations and landscapes with active transmission. At the patch scale, when considering individual villages or households, human behavioural factors are important and for individuals genetic and immunological factors play a role. Satellite remote sensing can provide landscape information at a range of spatial scales and provide a spatial framework within which to examine transmission patterns. This paper reviews the application of remotely sensed data and spatial data analysis to develop a better understanding of disease transmission and shows how such data have been used to examine human alveolar echinocossosis infection patterns, at a range of spatial scales, in an endemic area in central China.

Key Words: Echinococcus multilocularis; transmission; remote sensing; landscape.

c1 F. M. Danson, Telford Institute of Environmental Systems, School of Environment and Life Sciences, Peel Building, University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, UK. Tel: 0161 295 4038. Fax: 0161 295 5015. E-mail: