Epidemiology and Infection



Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana infections associated with amphibian contact, Mississippi, 2001


P. SRIKANTIAH a1a2, J. C. LAY a2, S. HAND a3, J. A. CRUMP a1a2, J. CAMPBELL a3, M. S. VAN DUYNE a2, R. BISHOP a4, R. MIDDENDOR a2, M. CURRIER a3, P. S. MEAD a2c1 and K. MØLBAK a2a5
a1 Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
a2 Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
a3 Mississippi State Department of Health, Jackson, MS, USA
a4 Biostatistics and Information Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
a5 Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark

Article author query
srikantiah p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
lay j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hand s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
crump j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
campbell j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
van duyne m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
bishop r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
middendor r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
currier m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
mead p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
molbak k   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 

Abstract

Salmonella Javiana is a Salmonella serotype that is restricted geographically in the United States to the Southeast. During the summer of 2001, the number of reported S. Javiana infections in Mississippi increased sevenfold. To identify sources of infection, we conducted a case-control study, defining a case as an infection with S. Javiana between August and September in a Mississippi resident. We enrolled 55 cases and 109 controls. Thirty (55%) case patients reported exposure to amphibians, defined as owning, touching, or seeing an amphibian on one's property, compared with 30 (29%) controls (matched odds ratio 2·8, P=0·006). Contact with amphibians and their environments may be a risk factor for human infection with S. Javiana. The geographic pattern of S. Javiana infections in the United States mimics the distribution of certain amphibian species in the Southeast. Public health officials should consider amphibians as potential sources of salmonellosis, and promote hand washing after contact with amphibians.

(Accepted October 10 2003)


Correspondence:
c1 Dr P. S. Mead, Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P.O. Box 2087, Ft. Collins, Colorado 80522, USA.


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