The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Special Series

Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Joseph Biederman a1c1, Thomas Spencer a1 and Timothy Wilens a1
a1 Massachusetts General Hospital, ACC-725, Boston, MA 02114, USA

Article author query
biederman j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
spencer t   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
wilens t   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


There is a substantial body of literature documenting the efficacy of multiple unrelated pharmacological agents in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) individuals throughout the life-cycle. The available literature indicates the important role of psychopharmacological agents in the reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and associated impairments. The literature documents that stimulants not only improve abnormal behaviours of ADHD, but also improves self-esteem, cognition, and social and family function. However, response varied in different age groups and with certain comorbidities. In addition there is a large body of literature documenting the efficacy of atomoxetine which shows improvement in these same domains. More research is needed on alternative pharmacological treatments and to further evaluate established therapeutics beyond school-aged Caucasian boys. Further, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment for comorbid ADHD, use of combined medications, and the combination of medication and psychosocial treatment.

(Received July 9 2003)
(Reviewed October 12 2003)
(Revised November 18 2003)
(Accepted November 19 2003)

Key Words: Atomoxetine; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; pharmacotherapy; psychostimulants; tricyclic antidepressants.

c1 Dr J. Biederman, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, ACC-725, Massachusetts General Hospital, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Tel.: (617) 726-2727 Fax: (617) 726-5567 E-mail: