Journal of Functional Programming


The Functional “C” experience

a1 Department of Computer Science, University of Twente, The Netherlands (e-mail:
a2 Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK (e-mail:
a3 Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK (e-mail:

Article author query
hartel p   [Google Scholar] 
muller h   [Google Scholar] 
glaser h   [Google Scholar] 


A functional programming language can be taught successfully as a first language, but if there is no follow up the students do not appreciate the functional approach. Following discussions concerning this issue at the 1995 FPLE conference (Hartel & Plasmeijer, 1995), we decided to develop such a follow up by writing a book that teaches C to students who can write simple functional programs. This paper summarises the essence of our approach, which is based on program transformation, and presents our experience teaching functional C at the Universities of Southampton and Bristol.