Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Open Peer Commentary

Anticipation requires adaptation

Christian Balkeniusa1 and Peter Gärdenforsa1

a1 Department of Cognitive Science, Lund University, Kungshuset, Lundagård, 222 22 Lund, Sweden. [email protected] [email protected]


To successfully interact with a dynamic world, our actions must be guided by a continuously changing anticipated future. Such anticipations must be tuned to the processing delays in the nervous system as well as to the slowness of the body, something that requires constant adaptation of the predictive mechanisms, which in turn require that sensory information be processed at different time-scales.