a1 Grupo Malaria, Universidad de Antioquia, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Calle 62 # 52-59, Medellín, Colombia
a2 Centro de Malária e Outras Doenças Tropicais/IHMT/UEI Biologia Molecular/UEI Malária, Lisbon, Portugal, Rua da Junqueira 96, Código postal: 1349-008
In Colombia, Plasmodium resistance to antimalarials such as chloroquine and antifolates is a serious problem. As a result, the national Colombian health authorities are monitoring the efficacy of alternative drugs and schemes. The study of genetic polymorphisms related with drug resistance is required in the region. In vitro responses to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, amodiaquine, desethylamodiaquine, artesunate and dihydroartesunate were carried out by HRP ELISA. SNP analysis in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes was performed by PCR-RFLP in 77 samples from the North West region of Colombia. In vitro resistance to chloroquine was high (74%), followed by mefloquine (30%) and desethylamodiaquine (30%). A positive correlation between the IC50 of paired drugs was also detected. The allele Pfmdr1 N86 (wild) was present in 100% of the samples and 1246Y (mutant) in 92%. However, their presence did not correlate with in vitro drug resistance. Presence of the mutations K76T and N75E in Pfcrt was confirmed in all samples. Analysis of 4 codons (72, 74, 75 and 76) in pfcrt confirmed the presence of the haplotypes CMET in 91% and SMET in 9% of the samples.
(Received July 26 2007)
(Revised November 27 2007)
(Revised December 28 2007)
(Accepted January 22 2008)