British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Pattern of beverage consumption and long-term association with body-weight status in German adolescents – results from the DONALD study

Lars Libudaa1 c1, Ute Alexya1, Wolfgang Sichert-Hellerta1, Peter Stehlea2, Nadina Karaolis-Danckerta1, Anette E. Buykena1 and Mathilde Kerstinga1

a1 Research Institute of Child Nutrition (FKE), Heinstueck 11, D-44225 Dortmund, Germany

a2 IEL – Nutritional Physiology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany


In the present study the relationship between the consumption of different beverage groups and body-weight status in 5 years of study participation in German adolescents was investigated. We used anthropometric and dietary data from 3 d weighed records of 244 subjects between 9 and 18 years of age participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Only subjects with at least four out of six possible weighed dietary records were considered. A repeated-measures regression model (PROC MIXED) was used to analyse the effect of beverage consumption on body-weight status. BMI standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) and body fat percentage (%BF) were chosen as the dependent variables. In boys, energetic beverage consumption was not associated with BMI-SDS or %BF, neither cross-sectionally nor prospectively. In girls, baseline consumption of energetic beverages did not predict baseline BMI-SDS, baseline %BF, or change in either variable over the study period. However, an increase in energetic beverage consumption over the study period was associated with an increase in BMI-SDS (+0.070 SDS/MJ increase in energetic beverage consumption; P = 0·01). Separate consideration of regular soft drinks and fruit juices revealed that, in girls, BMI-SDS increased with increased fruit juice consumption (+0·096 SDS/MJ increase in fruit juice consumption; P = 0·01), and to a lesser extent with regular soft drink consumption (+0·055 SDS/MJ increase in regular soft drink consumption; P = 0·08). In conclusion, these results suggest that an increase in energetic beverage consumption may result in weight gain, at least in adolescent girls.

(Received January 19 2007)

(Revised September 25 2007)

(Accepted September 28 2007)

(Online publication January 07 2008)


c1 Corresponding author: Lars Libuda, fax +49 231 71 15 81, email


Abbreviations: %BF, body fat percentage; BMI-SDS, BMI standard deviation score; DONALD, Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed