a1 Reading University
This paper is concerned with a phenomenon that has in previous descriptions been labelled ‘glottal reinforcement’, ‘pre-glottalization’ or ‘glottalization’ (for discussion of ‘glottal replacement’ and the distinction between ‘full’ and ‘pre-’ glottalization see below, 10.1). The essential characteristic of this glottalization is that the oral closure for /p/, /t/ or /k/ is preceded by a glottal closure, but there is much variation from one accent to another in terms both of the distribution of the glottal closure and of its articulatory characteristics (especially the duration of the closure). Of the literature on the subject, a speculative article by Christophersen (1952) followed by a reply from O'Connor (1952), a study by Andrésen eventually published as a book (1968) and a study by Higginbottom (1964) are the best known. I shall use the term ‘glottalization’ in this paper: being a more general label it does not commit one to the possibly misleading implications of the other names.