Empirical evidence demonstrates that minority and marginalized populations receive less and lower quality healthcare than more advantaged groups. Ethical analyses of these disparities explain their injustice. That disparities exist and constitute a moral wrong are uncontroversial views. Less clear are the exact causes of healthcare disparities. a
a Thanks go to several reviewers who read and commented on earlier drafts, including John Stone, John Arras, Jay Baruch, Terry Rosell, and an anonymous CQ reviewer.