Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Short Communication

“Mindscoping” pain and suffering

Jaak Panksepp a1 and Marcia Smith Pasqualini a2
a1 Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403
a2 Department of Psychology, Centre for the Study of Emotions, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY, United Kingdom


No adequate evidence exists for the evolution of facial pain expression and detection mechanisms, as opposed to social-learning processes. Although brain affective/emotional processes, and resulting whole body action patterns, have surely evolved, we should also aspire to monitor human suffering by direct neural measures rather than by more indirect indices.