Journal of Linguistics

Research Article

Forms of address and terms of reference fn1

a1 University of Ottawa


This paper examines the relationship between the use of names and other words in address and in reference: how does the way that speaker A addresses B differ from the way that A refers to B, and what are the factors affecting this difference? The study, based on observation and interviews, attempts both to solve a problem in pragmatics and to help historical linguists and others who need to know the extent to which it may be justified to extrapolate from referential to address usage and vice versa.

(Received December 21 1995)
(Revised December 10 1996)


Author's address: Department of Classics and Religious Studies, University of Ottawa, P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, 70 Laurier Avenue East, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada. E-mail:

fn1 I am extremely grateful to David Allerton, Peter Trudgill, Paul Friedrich, Peter Matthews and Anna Morpurgo Davies for their help with this paper.