Natural Language Engineering

Lenient morphological analysis

a1 Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli 81474, Tuzla, Istanbul, Turkey e-mail:


This paper presents a scheme that allows one to relax the all-or-none nature of two-level constraints in two-level morphology in a controlled manner, so that word forms with violations of some of the two-level constraints can be analyzed and ranked. The problem has been motivated by a recent phenomenon in Turkish with imported words that violate a fundamental assumption of Turkish that pronunciation and orthography have almost a one-to-one correspondence, and by a problem in Basque words with differing amounts of competence errors. We present the formulation of our proposal, and provide details of implementations for both problems using the XRCE Finite State Toolkit.

(Received April 6 2002)
(Revised October 30 2002)