a1 Department of Surgery, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53792, USA.
a2 Department of Pediatrics, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53792, USA.
a3 Departments of Pediatrics, Human Oncology and Genetics, and University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Cancer Center, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53792, USA.
Although great advances have been made in the treatment of low- and intermediate-risk neuroblastoma in recent years, the prognosis for advanced disease remains poor. Therapies based on monoclonal antibodies that specifically target tumour cells have shown promise for treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma. This article reviews the use of monoclonal antibodies either as monotherapy or as part of a multifaceted treatment approach for advanced neuroblastoma, and explains how toxins, cytokines, radioactive isotopes or chemotherapeutic drugs can be conjugated to antibodies to enhance their effects. Tumour resistance, the development of blocking antibodies, and other problems hindering the effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies are also discussed. Future therapies under investigation in the area of immunotherapy for neuroblastoma are considered.
c1 Corresponding author: Paul M. Sondel, Departments of Pediatrics, Human Oncology and Genetics and University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Cancer Center, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, K4/448 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792, USA. Tel: +1 608 263 9069; Fax: +1 608 263 4226; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
† These authors contributed equally to this work.