Journal of Fluid Mechanics

Formation of a jump by the dam-break wave over a granular bed

H. CAPART a1 and D. L. YOUNG a2
a1 Department of Civil Engineering, Université Catholique de Louvain, and Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgium
a2 Department of Civil Engineering and Hydraulic Research Laboratory, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan


A previously unreported shock feature associated with the scouring of a horizontal granular bed by a dam-break wave is discussed. Near the wave centre, the present study shows, the free surface breaks backward and a hydraulic jump forms. This behaviour is described from the standpoint of shallow-water theory, suitably extended to deal with non-equilibrium sediment transport. The shock formation involves a particularly strong coupling between flow free-surface evolution and bed morphodynamics. Support for our conclusions is sought through experimental and numerical approaches. In order to magnify the observed phenomena, measurements were performed for the case of light bed particles moving in sheet and debris flow modes. A detailed picture of the transient two-phase flow is presented, based on whole field acquisition of the grain motions by particle tracking techniques. Corresponding shallow-water solutions are constructed numerically using a shock capturing scheme. Finally, an interpretation of the jump formation is proposed based on the theory of characteristics.

(Received January 3 1997)
(Revised April 17 1998)

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