a1 Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens Medical School, 75 Mikras Asias Street, Athens 11527, Greece
a2 Hellenic Health Foundation, Greece
a3 Nutrition and Hormones Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
a4 Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
a5 Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
a6 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University, Naples, Italy
a7 Cancer Registry, Azienda Ospedaliera Civile–MP Arezzo, Ragusa, Italy
a8 Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy
a9 CPO–Piemonte, Torino, Italy
a10 Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, CSPO–Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Florence, Italy
a11 Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway
a12 Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Registry, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain
a13 Public Health Institute of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
a14 Epidemiology Department, Murcia Health Council, Spain
a15 Andalusian School of Public Health, Granada, Spain
a16 Department of Public Health of Gipuzkoa, Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain
a17 Public Health & Health Planning Directorate, Asturias, Spain
a18 MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, UK & MRC Centre for Nutritional Epidemiology in Cancer Prevention and Survival, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, UK
a19 Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
a20 Division of Clinical Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany
a21 Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany
a22 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
a23 Cancer Epidemiology Centre for Nutrition and Health, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
a24 Departments of Odontology/Section of Cardiology and Public Health and Medicine/Section of Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Sweden
a25 Department of Public Health and Medicine/Section of Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Sweden
a26 Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden
a27 Institute Gustave Roussy, E3N-EPIC Group, INSERM, Villejuif, France
Objective To compare the average out-of-home (OH) consumption of foods and beverages, as well as energy intake, among populations from 10 European countries and to describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, as defined for the purpose of the present study, in comparison to other individuals.
Design Cross-sectional study. Dietary data were collected through single 24-hour dietary recalls, in which the place of consumption was recorded. For the present study, substantial OH eaters were defined as those who consumed more than 25% of total daily energy intake at locations other than the household premises. Mean dietary intakes and the proportion of substantial OH eaters are presented by food group and country. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of being a substantial OH eater in comparison to not being one, using mutually adjusted possible non-dietary determinants.
Setting Ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Subjects The subjects were 34 270 individuals, 12 537 men and 21 733 women, aged 35–74 years.
Results The fraction of energy intake during OH eating was generally higher in northern European countries than in the southern ones. Among the food and beverage groups, those selectively consumed outside the home were coffee/tea/waters and sweets and, to a lesser extent, cereals, meats, added lipids and vegetables. Substantial OH eating was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with age and physical activity. Substantial OH eating was less common among the less educated compared with the more educated, and more common during weekdays in central and north Europe and during the weekend in south Europe.
Conclusions Eating outside the home was associated with sedentary lifestyle and increased energy intake; it was more common among the young and concerned in particular coffee/tea/waters and sweets.
(Received November 13 2006)
(Accepted February 21 2007)